#19 PCR and Exponential Growth

Second Half of Chessboard by Ray Kurzweil (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheat_and_chessboard_problem)

“It was probably my math teacher who introduced us in High School to exponential growth by telling us the story of the invention of the game of chess. The king (emperor, whatever) who had ordered a new game, because of the fact that he was bored by the old games, was so happy that he said (to) the inventor: ‘Name your reward and you will get it!’ The inventor asked for a simple reward. ‘I would like to have one grain of rice on the first chess square, two on the second, four on the third and so on, doubling the amount of rice every square.’ The legend says that the King was surprised he didn’t ask for gold but was quite content that the inventor asked for so little. But when the court scholars told him there wasn’t enough rice in the whole world to fill the chess board, he had to admit his loss. After that the King executed the inventor or took him as his advisor. There are more versions to this story, but the core is always the same: people underestimate the growth of an exponential function.” https://www.instructables.com/Chess-Board-Full-of-Rice-Exponential-Growth

We have been living at the mercy of the Pandemic Narrative for 20 months. The Worldometer, which you can conveniently access at https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/#countries (https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/#countries), gives daily updates on COVID-19 statistics for the world and every country in it. Here is the August 19, 2021 update for my country, the US.

Coronavirus Cases – 38,067,107 Deaths – 641,312

The symptoms that caught the attention of doctors in Wuhan, China were:

1. Atypical pneumonia 2. Hypoxia.

Without PCR, healthy people would not have been tested. Without PCR, only those with low blood-oxygen levels and pneumonia should have been tested.

The CDC and the WHO have NOT been counting COVID-19 victims. They have been counting positive PCR tests.

Not the same thing.

We are all familiar with what happens at the beginning and end of the PCR process…

At the beginning of the process, a piece of snot is extracted.

At the end, you get a paper with the word positive or negative.

What happens between the swab and the paper?

Fortunately, there are many articles and videos that explain the PCR process (See links at the end).

Unfortunately, to understand PCR, you need to conquer a confusing mumble-jumble of technical terms before confronting a PCR machine called a Thermocycler, which might as well be known as the “magical-mystery machine”.

Fortunately, there are techno-wizards who understand it all.

Why bother trying to understand? Why not just leave it to the techno-wizards?

Unfortunately, PCR tests have been used to ruin our lives. Not only do positive test results inflate the number of COVID-19 cases and deaths, they can also mean loss of access to public spaces, loss of social interaction, loss of community services and even loss of physical freedom (quarantine). They have been used to justify the “vaccination” of millions of people with a new genetic technology that has not been tested for safety on humans.

The system is broken. We can no longer trust the techno-wizards and their magical-mystery machines.

Therefore, we need to make the effort to understand the PCR process, and to do that, we need to understand Exponential Function.

Returning to the story of the rice and the chessboard, we see that the king has started placing one grain of rice on the first square, two on the second, four on the third, 16 on the fourth, etc. The first eight squares have cost him 128+64+32+16+8+4+2+1 = 255 grains of rice. A mere handful.

Second row. As he continues doubling the number of grains on each of the remaining squares in row two, the king begins to see the effects of exponential growth. The rice no longer fits on the chessboard.

By the 16th square, the king owes the chess master:

32,768+16,384+8192+4096+2048+1024+512+256 = 65,280 grains of rice.

But don’t forget the 255 grains from the first row. The grand total after two rows of exponential growth is 65,535 grains.

Although most of us have cooked and/or eaten rice, we have no idea what this number of grains would look or feel like. According to mathscareers.org 65,535 grains would look and feel like a 2 kg bag of rice. That is quite a difference in only 8 squares, but hardly enough to empty the imperial coffers.

Third Row: By the end of the third row, the king owes millions of grains for a total debt of 16,777,215 or 486.5 kg. (243 bags of Arya organic rice). Still won’t break the bank.

Fourth Row:The 32nd square brings the debt to billions of grains (4,294,967,295) equal to thousands of kilograms of rice. We are talking about metric tons. (1000 kg = 1 metric ton). We must now think in terms of shipping containers. The king went from handfuls to truckloads in four rows. Still not enough to bankrupt the empire.

But what does that red line between the fourth and the fifth row mean?

The line marks the difference between the first half of the chessboard and the second half where the numbers soon explode beyond human understanding.

According to Ray Kurzweil, who is credited for this image of the chessboard,

“It should be pointed out that as the emperor and the inventor went through the first half of the chess board, things were fairly uneventful. The inventor was given spoonfuls of rice, then bowls of rice, then barrels. By the end of the first half of the chess board, the inventor had accumulated one large field’s worth (4 billion grains), and the emperor did start to take notice. It was as they progressed through the second half of the chessboard that the situation quickly deteriorated …. One version of the story has the emperor going bankrupt as the 63 doublings ultimately totaled 18 million trillion grains of rice. At ten grains of rice per square inch, this requires rice fields covering twice the surface area of the Earth, oceans included. Another version of the story has the inventor losing his head.”

You can watch the whole story in four minutes here:

Rice on a chessboard, an exponential story
4 minutes

How is the rice/chessboard story different from the COVID/PCR story? How is it the same?

Same: Both stories have the same exponential growth. They both grow by doubling something over and over. Therefore, we can use the same numbers from the chessboard squares for PCR doubling.


1. There is no chessboard in the magical-mystery Thermocycler. Rather than chessboard squares, there are PCR “cycles”.

2. For each PCR cycle, we use only the number on the “square”. We do not add the numbers from previous cycles (“squares”). For example, cycle 8 will have a grand total of 128, NOT 128+ 64+32+8+4+2=255.

Coronavirus diameter = 100 nanometers = 0.0001 mm
COVID-19 Genome
PCR CYCLES https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KoLnIwoZKU

If you click on the link at the bottom of the image above, you can see a video representation of a snippet being copied inside the magical-mystery Thermocycler.

How small is the Coronavirus?

The spaces between the smallest lines of a meter stick are equal to one millimeter (1 mm). The spaces between the numbers are equal to one centimeter (1 cm). One coronavirus is 100 nanometers (100 nm) wide. Ten thousand (10,000) coronaviruses laid side by side would fit in one millimeter.

Does PCR exponentially double COVID-19 like the king doubled rice grains?

No. The PCR test is not about the virus as a whole, but about its genetic code.

Does the PCR test exponentially double the genome of the Coronavirus?
No. It exponentially doubles only a tiny snippet of the genome.

Why only a tiny snippet?

Because it is that tiny snippet that distinguishes COVID-19 from the common cold, MERS, SARS-CoV-1 Pangolin CoV and bat CoV.


Here is what happens: The techno-wizards make a template of the gene sequence they are looking for in your snot. Then they program the Thermocycler to seek, find and copy that particular sequence in what is left of your snot after it has been “purified”. Part of that programing is the “CYCLE THRESHOLD” which tells the machine when to stop searching for sequences that match the template. The Cycle Threshold (Ct value) is the maximum number of cycles that the Thermocycler is programmed to run.

You should always ask the technician to tell you the PCR test’s CYCLE THRESHOLD before consenting to take the test.

Why? Let’s say you have one lonely virus in your snot. How many times will a viral snippet need to be “amplified” (exponentially doubled) in order for the techno-wizards to “see” it? Let’s look at the chessboard again–or better yet, let’s look at this nifty table that Wikipedia provides on the page entitled “Power of Two”


Remember, each of these powers of two is a square on the chessboard as a well as a PCR cycle. Also remember that after the 32nd square (2^32) we have moved onto the second half of the chessboard where the numbers explode. That means we should be very, very wary.

If the CYCLE THRESHOLD has been set at 50, that means that the lone viral sequence from the lone virus in your snot has been amplified to 1,125,899,906,842,624 copies. Could one, and only one, COVID virus be detected by setting the cycle threshold that high? Could you be quarantined based on the fact that you had one COVID-19 virus in one piece of snot?

The original COVID-19 test was called the Corman-Drosten RT-PCR test. Peter Drosten recommended a cycle threshold of 45 cycles. At cycle thresholds this high, the magical-mystery Thermocycler wouldn’t need very many snippets in order to find enough “cases” to justify the declaration of a “pandemic”. Did some laboratories set the cycle thresholds at 50 cycles or even higher?

The Thermocycler does not detect entire viruses. It detects viral snippets on strands of RNA in one piece of snot. It does not tell you how many viral snippets are there. It does not tell you how many of those snippets come from broken viruses that could not have caused any harm to you.

If there are many snippets, then the Thermocycler might have an easier time detecting them after a few cycles. However, no matter how low the cycle threshold, a positive test does NOT guarantee viable (harmful) viruses. Your immune system might have already broken them into viral bits that could not harm you. Therefore, the Thermocycler, for all its magic and mystery, cannot prove that you are infected or infectious. It just proves that one or more snippets have been found in one piece of snot.

What would be the proof of a COVID-19 infection?

Scientists would need to take a sample of your snot and try to grow whole viruses–not just snippets. This is a very lengthy process, and can’t be done for everyone; but wouldn’t it be fair to ask for a few confirmations of whole viruses–just to validate the test?

In conclusion, the PCR test will accurately “find” viral snippets, but it cannot accurately determine if a person is infected or infectious. It cannot be used to diagnose COVID-19 in the absence of the original symptoms from Wuhan. It cannot be used to determine cause of death. Because the COVID-19 statistics have been largely based on PCR tests with very high cycle thresholds, we do not have sufficient evidence that a COVID-19 pandemic ever existed.

Links to videos about PCR

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
1:27 min
DNA Learning Center

Using Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) in COVID-19 testing 3:44 min
DNA Learning Center

PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction
7:53 minutes
Amoeba Sisters

How does PCR work?- THE polymerase chain reaction
2:17 min

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